The Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) and law enforcement agencies in Europe managed to dismantle the Andromeda botnet last week.
Also known as Gamarue, Andromeda malware has been around since 2011 and used to ensnare the infected computers into a botnet. The main purpose of this network of infected machines was to distribute other malware families, including the Dridex banking Trojan or point-of-sale (PoS) malware GamaPoS.
In a FortiGuard Labs report detailing the top 5 methods used to attack healthcare in Q4, 2016, Andromeda emerged as the top botnet.
Packing a loader that features virtual machine and debug evasion techniques, Andromeda downloads modules and updates from its command and control (C&C) server. Overall associated with 80 malware families, the threat was detected on or blocked on an average of over 1 million computers every month for the past six months.
The takedown, a joint effort from the FBI, the Luneburg Central Criminal Investigation Inspectorate in Germany, Europol’s European Cybercrime Centre (EC3), the Joint Cybercrime Action Task Force (J-CAT), Eurojust, and private-sector partners, was performed on November 29.
The operation was the result of information gathered following last year’s shut down of a large criminal network known as Avalanche, a platform used for mass global malware attacks and money mule recruiting. Andromeda was also used in the Avalanche network.
“Insights gained during the Avalanche case by the investigating German law enforcement entities were shared, via Europol, with the FBI and supported this year’s investigations to dismantle the Andromeda malware last week,” a Europol announcement reads.
Investigators focused on taking down servers and domains used to spread the Andromeda malware and resulted in the sinkholing of 1500 domains. 48 hours of sinkholing resulted in around 2 million unique Andromeda victim IP addresses from 223 countries being captured.
The takedown operation also included the search and arrest of a suspect in Belarus.
The investigators also decided to extend the sinkhole measures of the Avalanche case for another year, as globally 55% of the computers originally infected in Avalanche continue to be infected.
The measures to combat Andromeda and Avalanche involved the following countries: Austria, Belgium, Finland, France, Italy, the Netherlands, Poland, Spain, the United Kingdom, Australia, Belarus, Canada, Montenegro, Singapore, and Taiwan.
Private and institutional partners involved in the takedown include: Shadowserver Foundation, Microsoft, Registrar of Last Resort, Internet Corporation for Assigned Names and Numbers (ICANN) and associated domain registries, Fraunhofer Institute for Communication, Information Processing and Ergonomics (FKIE), and the German Federal Office for Information Security (BSI).
“This is another example of international law enforcement working together with industry partners to tackle the most significant cyber criminals and the dedicated infrastructure they use to distribute malware on a global scale. The clear message is that public-private partnerships can impact these criminals and make the internet safer for all of us,” Steven Wilson, the Head of Europol’s European Cybercrime Centre, said.